Multistage centrifugal exhausters are horizontal multiple-stage centrifugal compressors that use bearings, a shaft, and impellers to remove or separate air or gas. They have a tightly sealed body of carbon steel or iron that houses the impellers and shaft. Inlets and discharge heads are located at opposite ends of the body and have direct access to the set of impellers. Read More…
Multistage ExhaustersMultistage centrifugal exhausters are horizontal multiple-stage centrifugal compressors that use bearings, a shaft, and impellers to remove or separate air or gas. They have a tightly sealed body of carbon steel or iron that houses the impellers and shaft. Inlets and discharge heads are located at opposite ends of the body and have direct access to the set of impellers.
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Although axial fans can exhaust contaminated air or gas, multistage exhausters are sturdier, more reliable, and more economical. Industrial complexes may have several exhausters for each piece of equipment or a single central exhauster, depending on the size of their operation.
Industries that produce toxic vapors, contaminants, and gasses rely on multistage exhausters to remove harmful substances to maintain clean and safe conditions. In addition, the exceptional durability of multistage exhausters makes them an ideal choice for separating and removing toxins.
Uses for Multistage Exhausters
Since their inception, multistage exhausters have become essential to multiple industries. For example, in the biogas industry, they are used to separate gas from sludge to produce biogas. Multistage exhausters' wide and varied use covers a wide spectrum of innovative and inventive methods for extracting, removing, and reusing gasses.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used in the food industry to control insects and pests. In addition, using CO2 guarantees food processing quality and removes contamination concerns. At the end of food processing, the CO2 is collected instead of released into the atmosphere. Multistage exhausters are used to collect the CO2 such that it can be recycled and reused. The process reduces waste and increases efficiency.
Landfill Gas Extraction
Landfills are covered and compressed to create an anaerobic condition, a decomposition process. The anaerobic condition produces methane and carbon dioxide, which could be harmful if released into the air. Multistage exhausters extract the gas through a pipe connected to the landfill.
Aside from the obvious atmospheric factors, the United States government regulates the amount of gas that can be released into the air. Multistage exhausters reduce the remaining gas to a fraction of government standards.
Biogas is produced by the thermochemical conversion of biomass. It is composed of methane, the same compound that makes up natural gas. The final product of biogas extraction can be used as natural gas. Therefore, biogas is referred to as renewable natural gas or biomethane. The process for the production of biogas begins with bacteria that break down biomass to produce biogas.
The extraction process for biogas is similar to that used in landfills. A multistage exhauster is attached by a pipe to the biomass and collects the methane produced by the bacterial breakdown. The collected methane with portions of carbon dioxide is then processed to produce renewable natural gas.
Components of a Multistage Exhauster
The structure of a multistage exhauster is similar to that of a multistage centrifugal blower. Both have impellers, a shaft, a motor, housing, inlets, and discharge heads. A multistage blower pulls in air or gas and places it under pressure before releasing it for further processing. A multistage exhauster pulls in air or gas and extracts portions to purify the air or collect materials.
The main working part of a multistage exhauster is the impellers, similar to fans. Although there are several varieties of impellers, shrouded impellers are used the most due to their ability to withstand the extreme pressure of a working multistage exhauster. The impellers occupy the central part of a multistage exhauster. They draw in air or gas through the inlet and move the air or gas along to the outlet or discharge head.
Accurate placement of the impellers is essential to the smooth operation of a multistage exhauster. They must be positioned sufficiently to have clearance from the casing but close enough to the casing for efficient operation and movement of the air or gas.
The impellers are connected to the shaft that runs the full length of the multistage exhauster from the inlet to the outlet and keeps the impellers aligned. The constant motion of the shaft requires that it be made of the most durable materials. In most cases, it is made of carbon steel or stainless steel.
Both ends of the shaft are supported by self-aligning bearings mounted in a bearing housing and connected at one end to the motor. The bearings must be carefully maintained and lubricated to ensure proper performance.
Although there are various motors used to power multistage exhausters, most have an electric motor that is directly or indirectly driven by a belt. They operate at a constant speed of 3600 RPM with a squirrel cage design.
Housing or Casing
The housing encompasses the mechanism of a multistage exhauster and is made of cast iron, carbon steel, or aluminum. Each section of the housing is connected with high-strength steel rods. Aluminum housings are used for smaller multistage exhausters that do not have to endure stress or heavy wear.
The complete multistage exhauster sits on a solid base of steel designed to prevent vibrations. The steel-framed base is supported by machined pads that ensure proper positioning and secure alignment. The base plate rests on a concrete foundation, not bolted or grouted to the floor.
Other components included in a multistage exhauster include a diffuser for guiding air or gas, flexible couplings, and baffle rings.
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